What is the full form of CID?
The Full-Form of CID | Meaning, History, FAQs| Latest Update 2021
The full form of CID is Criminal Investigation Department. It is a branch of the police department inducted with the task of carrying out investigations, inquiries and other related detective jobs relating to a crime committed.
The criminal investigations by police personnel wearing plainclothes in India is a very ancient system first modernized by Chanakya (also known as Kautilya) and applied in the Mauryan Kingdom some 2350 years ago. The Mughal Emperors further modernized the CID.
The Structure of CID in INDIA
The existing system and structure of CID in India is based on the British system. After India attained freedom in 1947, the CID further attained significance and subsequent modifications as per changing needs of the country.
Based on the pattern of Criminal Investigation Departments formed in 1902 by the British Government in colonial India, the system still runs on the same 119-year old line with the application of sophisticated electronic gadgets and communication systems.
Who Started CID?
In 1902, the British Government appointed the Frazer Commission to review the Policing in British India. Based on the recommendations of the Frazer Commission, a special department that is today known as CID was formed within the police Department.
Since 1929, the Criminal Investigation Department has diversified into several branches. Some of these branches include Special Branch, CID, and the Crime Branch (CB-CID). Currently, the CID is involved in several areas of crime and criminal activities.
Branches of CID in INDIA
These branches are:
- Anti-Human Trafficking & Missing Persons Cell
- Anti-Narcotics Cell
- Finger Print Bureau
- Anti-Terrorism squad
All these branches play very important roles in containing crime and detecting the criminals leading to their production in the court which decides on their quantum of punishment. The CID is also credited with solving criminal cases that took place several years ago or several decades ago.
The CID is a vital-most department of national security. This is the primary reason why the government often hands over cases to them or even the court asking the government to hand over such sensitive cases to the CID.
In India, the CID is also involved in enquiring into cases of murder, smuggling, riot, theft, armed robbery, kidnapping for ransom, ransom, forgery, counterfeiting of currency, and political cases. The personnel of CID operates wearing plain cloth and often assume different looks to properly investigate a particular case.
Sometimes, they mix with the actual gang of criminals to find out the realities and arrest them when need be. Often, the members of CID are known as “Detectives” or “Sleuths”. The tradition of such plainclothes sleuths began in London way back in 1842.
Almost all police departments in different countries of the world follow the uniform system of investigations on crimes and follow nearly identical modus operandi wearing plainclothes.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
Question: How old is the tradition of CID in India?
Answer: The tradition dates back to 2600 years ago when Bimbisara was the emperor of the Magadh Kingdom. It was further modified, changed, and modernized by Chanakya (also known as Kautilya), the Prime Minister of Chandragupta Maura of Magadh Empire, and nearly 2300 years ago.
Question: Is the British Government credited with laying down the present system of CID?
Answer: Yes, the British shaped it. The modern functioning of CID is almost the same as the ones that the British introduced in 1902. There had been many changes in the setup and functioning of CID after that. As time changed over the years, the nature of responsibilities of CID also changed subsequently.
Question: Do the personnel of CID wear police uniforms?
Answer: No. They don’t look like the usual policemen. They operate wearing plainclothes to avoid being spotted out as policemen by the criminals or the person against whom criminal investigations are being carried out.