What You May Not Know About the Advancements in Technology Thanks to Vacuum Technologies
A vacuum is a tool utilized in numerous industrial operations, including packing, drying, bottling, picking and placing, as well as degassing. An industrial vacuum pump is utilized in these procedures to create, improve, and sustain a vacuum. There are several diverse types of industrial vacuum technologies in the marketplace. Understanding each type of vacuum’s advantages, benefits, and operating principles are critical to determining which vacuum is best for someone and their application.
Basic Operating Principle of an Industrial Vacuum Pump
A Vacuum pump removes air particles and other gases from the vacuum chamber or the outlet side if a higher vacuum pump is placed in series. The removal of extra molecules gets progressively difficult when the pressure in the chamber is reduced. As a result, an industrial vacuum system must be capable of operating over a significant percentage of a very wide pressure range, often ranging from 1 to 10-6 Torr / 1.3 to 13.3 bar of pressure. It is extended to 10-9 Torr or below in scientific and research applications. There are various types of pumps available, having numerous industrial and scientific applications. In a normal vacuum system, various pumps are employed to achieve the required pressure range, each covering a section of the pressure range and working in series at times.
Types of Vacuum Pumps
Booster Pumps, Primary or Backing Pumps, and Secondary or High Vacuum Pumps are the three types of pumps for various vacuum ranges: Vacuum pressures in the high, very high, and ultra-high categories. Vacuum pumps are divided into two categories: Entrapment or gas capture pumps and gas transfer pumps.
- Gas Transfer Pumps
Transfer pumps move gas molecules through kinetic energy or positive displacement. The pump discharges the same quantity of gas molecules as it takes in, and the gas is slightly over atmospheric pressure when it leaves. The compression ratio is the difference between the exit pressure and the lowest pressure achieved (inlet).
- Kinetic Transfer Pumps
These pumps work on the idea of momentum transfer and the utilization of high-speed vanes or injected vapor to move gas to the exit. These pumps can reach large compression ratios at minute pressures, although they do not usually have vacuum-packed volumes.
- Positive Displacement
Positive displacement pumps are pumps that work by mechanically holding a volume of gas and transferring it through the pump. The contained volume is pressed to a smaller volume at a greater pressure. The compressed gas is then released to either the atmosphere or the next pump, which is often arranged in numerous stages on a common drive shaft. Two transfer pumps are frequently used in series to offer a higher vacuum and flow rate. Additionally, to achieve low vacuums, positive displacement pumps are employed. This vacuum pump fills a cavity, allowing gases to escape from an enclosed environment or chamber.
The cavity is then sealed, causing it to exhaust into the atmosphere. Positive displacement vacuum pumps work by enlarging the volume of a container to create a vacuum. A mechanism, for example, expands a small sealed compartment to create a deep vacuum in a manual water pump. Some liquid from the chamber is propelled into the pump’s tiny cavity due to the pressure. The pump’s void is then closed off from the chamber, exposed to the atmosphere, and compressed back down to a tiny size.
A diaphragm muscle extends the chest cavity, causing the capacity of the lungs to grow, which is an example of positive displacement vacuum pumps. As a result of the expansion, a partial vacuum is created, replaced by air pushed in by atmospheric pressure. Roots blowers and liquid ring vacuum pumps are samples of positive displacement vacuum pump widely utilized in numerous sectors to create a vacuum in limited spaces.
- Entrapment Pumps
As the name suggests, capture or entrapment pumps capture gas molecules on the surface within the vacuum system. These pumps have lower flow rates than vacuum pumps like transfer pumps, but they can achieve exceptionally high vacuum levels of up to 10-12 Torr. Capture pumps use ionic reaction, cryogenic condensation, or chemical reaction to create an oil-free vacuum without mechanical components. Chemical reaction-based Entrapment Pumps are more effective because they are frequently put within the vessel where vacuum is needed. As the pump operates, air molecules form a thin film, which is removed, causing a chemical reaction on the pump’s inner surface. Furthermore, to achieve ultra-high vacuum, entrapment pumps are used in conjunction with positive displacement and momentum transfer vacuum pumps.